15-1. Introduction. Shelter is
anything that protects a survivor from the environmental hazards. The
information in this chapter describes how the environment influences shelter
site selection and factors which survivors must consider before constructing an
adequate shelter. The techniques and procedures for constructing shelters for
various types of protection are also presented.
15-2. Shelter Considerations.
The location and type of shelter built by survivors vary with each survival
situation. There are many things to consider when picking a site. Survivors
should consider the time and energy required to establish an adequate camp,
weather conditions, life forms (human, plant, and animal), terrain, and time of
day. Every effort should be made to use as little energy as possible and yet
attain maximum protection from the environment.
a. Time. Late afternoon is not the best time to look for a site which will
meet that day's shelter requirements. If survivors wait until the last minute,
they may be forced to use poor materials in unfavorable conditions. They must
constantly be thinking of ways to satisfy their needs for protection from
b. Weather. Weather conditions are a key consideration when selecting a
shelter site. Failure to consider the weather could have disastrous results.
Some major weather factors which can influence the survivor's choice of shelter
type and site selection are temperature, wind, and precipitation.
(1) Temperature. Temperatures can vary considerably within a given area.
Situating a campsite in low areas such as a valley in cold regions can expose
survivors to low night temperatures and windchill factors. Colder temperatures
are found along valley floors which are sometimes referred to as "cold
air sumps." It may be advantageous to situate campsites to take advantage
of the Sun. Survivors could place their shelters in open areas during the
colder months for added warmth, and in shaded areas for protection from the
Sun during periods of hotter weather. In some areas a compromise may have to
be made. For example, in many deserts the daytime temperatures can be very
high while low temperatures at night can turn water to ice. Protection from
both heat and cold are needed in these areas. Shelter type and location should
be chosen to provide protection from the existing temperature conditions.
(2) Wind. Wind can be either an advantage or a disadvantage depending upon
the temperature of the area and the velocity of the wind. During the summer or
on warm days, survivors can take advantage of the cool breezes and protection
the wind provides from insects by locating their camps on knolls or spits of
land. Conversely, wind can become an annoyance or even a hazard as blowing
sand, dust, or snow can cause skin and eye irritation and damage to clothing
and equipment. On cold days or during winter months, survivors should seek
shelter sites which are protected from the effects of windchill and drifting
(3) Precipitation. The many forms of precipitation (rain, sleet, hail, or
snow) can also present problems for survivors. Shelter sites should be out of
major drainages and other low areas to provide protection from flash floods or
mud slides resulting from heavy rains. Snow can also be a great danger if
shelters are placed in potential avalanche areas.
c. Life Forms. All life forms (plant, human, and animal) must be considered
when selecting the campsite and the type of shelter that will be used. The
"human" factor may mean the enemy or other groups from whom survivors
wish to remain undetected. Information regarding this aspect of shelters and
shelter site selection is in part nine of this regulation (Evasion). For a
shelter to be adequate, certain factors must be considered, especially if
extended survival is expected.
(1) Insect life can cause personal discomfort, disease, and injury. By
locating shelters on knolls, ridges, or any other area that has a breeze or
steady wind, survivors can reduce the number of flying insects in their area.
Staying away from standing water sources will help to avoid mosquitoes, bees,
wasps, and hornets. Ants can be a major problem; some species will vigorously
defend their territories with painful stings or bites or particularly
distressing pungent odors.
(2) Large and small animals can also be a problem, especially if the camp
is situated near their trails or waterholes.
(3) Dead trees that are standing, and trees with dead branches should be
avoided. Wind may cause them to fall, causing injuries or death. Poisonous
plants, such as poison oak or poison ivy, must also be avoided when locating a
d. Terrain. Terrain hazards may not be as apparent as weather and animal life
hazards, but they can be many times more dangerous. Avalanche, rock, dry
streambeds, or mud-slide areas should be avoided. These areas can be recognized
by either a clear path or a path of secondary vegetation, such as 1- to 15-foot
tall vegetation or other new growth which extends from the top to the bottom of
a hill or mountain. Survivors should not choose shelter sites at the bottom of
steep slopes which may be prone to slides. Likewise, there is a danger in
camping at the bottom of steep scree or talus slopes. Additionally, rock
overhang must be checked for safety before using it as a shelter.
a. Four prerequisites must be satisfied when selecting a shelter location.
(1) The first is being near water, food, fuel, and a signal or recovery
(2) The second is that the area be safe, providing natural protection from
(3) The third is that sufficient materials be available to construct the
shelter. In some cases, the "shelter" may already be present.
Survivors seriously limit themselves if they assume shelters must be a
fabricated framework having predetermined dimensions and a cover of parachute
material or a signal paulin. More appropriately, survivors should consider
using sheltered places already in existence in the immediate area. This does
not rule out shelters with a fabricated framework and parachute or other
manufactured material covering; it simply enlarges the scope of what can be
used as a survival shelter.
(4) Finally, the area chosen must be both large enough and level enough for
the survivor to lie down. Personal comfort is an important fundamental for
survivors to consider. An adequate shelter provides physical and mental
well-being for sound rest. Adequate rest is extremely vital if survivors are
to make sound decisions. Their need for rest becomes more critical as time
passes and rescue or return is delayed. Before actually constructing a
shelter, survivors must determine the specific purpose of the shelter. The
following factors influence the type of shelter to be fabricated.
(a) Rain or other precipitation.
(e) Available materials nearby (manufactured or natural).
(f) Length of expected stay.
(g) Enemy presence in the area-evasion "shelters" are covered
in part nine of the regulation (Evasion).
(h) Number and physical condition of survivors.
b. If possible, survivors should try to find a shelter which needs little
work to be adequate. Using what is already there, so that complete construction
of a shelter is not necessary, saves time and energy. For example, rock
overhangs, caves, large crevices, fallen logs, root buttresses, or snow banks
can all be modified to provide adequate shelter. Modifications may include
adding snow blocks to finish off an existing tree well shelter, increasing the
insulation of the shelter by using vegetation or parachute material, etc., or
building a reflector fire in front of a rock overhang or cave. Survivors must
consider the amount of energy required to build the shelter. It is not really
wise to spend a great deal of time and energy in constructing a shelter if
nature has provided a natural shelter nearby which will satisfy the survivor's
needs. See Figure 15-1 for examples
of naturally occurring shelters.
Figure 15-1. Natural
c. The size limitations of a shelter are important only if there is either a
lack of material on hand or if it is cold. Otherwise, the shelter should be
large enough to be comfortable yet not so large as to cause an excessive amount
of work. Any shelter, naturally occurring or otherwise, in which a fire is to be
built must have a ventilation system which will provide fresh air and allow
smoke and carbon monoxide to escape. Even if a fire does not produce visible
smoke (such as heat tabs), the shelter must still be vented. See Figure
15-27 for placement of ventilation holes in a snow cave. If a fire is to be
placed outside the shelter, the opening of the shelter should be placed 90
degrees to the prevailing wind. This will reduce the chances of sparks and smoke
being blown into the shelter if the wind should reverse direction in the morning
and evening. This frequently occurs in mountainous areas. The best fire to
shelter distance is approximately 3 feet. One place where it would not be wise
to build a fire is near the aircraft wreckage, especially if it is being used as
a shelter. The possibility of igniting spilled lubricants or fuels is great.
Survivors may decide instead to use materials from the aircraft to add to a
shelter located a safe distance from the crash site.
15-4. Immediate Action Shelters.
The first type of shelter that survivors may consider using, or the first type
they may be forced to use, is an immediate action shelter. An immediate action
shelter is one which can be erected quickly with minimum effort; for example,
raft, aircraft parts, parachutes, paulin, and plastic bag. Natural formations
can also shield survivors from the elements immediately, to include overhanging
ledges, fallen logs, caves, and tree wells (Figure
15-2). It isn't necessary to be concerned with exact shelter dimensions.
Survivors should remember that if shelter is needed, use an existing shelter if
at all possible. They should improvise on natural shelters or construct new
shelters only if necessary. Regardless of type, the shelter must provide
whatever protection is needed and, with a little ingenuity, it should be
possible for survivors to protect themselves and do so quickly. In many
instances, the immediate action shelters may have to serve as permanent shelters
for aircrew members. For example, many aircrew members fly without parachutes,
large cutting implements (axes), and entrenching tools; therefore, multiperson
liferafts may be the only immediate or long-term shelter available. In this
situation, multiperson liferafts must be deployed in the quickest manner
possible to ensure maximum advantages are attained from the following shelter
a. Set up in areas which afford maximum protection from precipitation and
wind and use the basic shelter principle in paragraphs 15-2 and 15-3.
Immediate Action Shelters.
b. Anchor the raft for retention during high winds.
c. Use additional boughs, grasses, etc., for ground insulation.
15-5. Improvised Shelters.
Shelters of this type should be easy to construct and (or) dismantle in a short
period of time. However, these shelters usually require more time to construct
then an immediate action shelter. For this reason, survivors should only
consider this type of shelter when they aren't immediately concerned with
getting out of the elements. Shelters of this type include the following:
a. The "A frame" design is adaptable to all environments as it can
be easily modified; for example, tropical para-hammock, temperate area "A
frame," arctic thermal "A frame," and fighter trench.
b. Simple shade shelter; these are useful in dry areas.
c. Various paratepees.
d. Snow shelters; includes tree-pit shelters.
e. All other variations of the above shelter types; sod shelters, etc.
15-6. Shelters for
Warm Temperature Areas:
a. If survivors are to use parachute material, they should remember that
"pitch and tightness" apply to shelters designed to shed rain or snow.
Parachute material is porous and will not shed moisture unless it is stretched
tightly at an angle of sufficient pitch which will encourage run-off instead of
penetration. An angle of 40 to 60 degrees is recommended for the
"pitch" of the shelter. The material stretched over the framework
should be wrinkle-free and tight. Survivors should not touch the material when
water is running over it as this will break the surface tension at that point
and allow water to drip into the shelter. Two layers of parachute material, 4 to
6 inches apart, will create a more effective water repellent covering. Even
during hard rain, the outer layer only lets a mist penetrate if it is pulled
tight. The inner layer will then channel off any moisture which may penetrate.
This layering of parachute material also creates a dead-air space that covers
the shelter. This is especially beneficial in cold areas when the shelter is
enclosed. Adequate insulation can also be provided by boughs, aircraft parts,
snow, etc. These will be discussed in more depth in the area of cold climate
shelters. A double layering of parachute material helps to trap body heat,
radiating heat from the Earth's surface, and other heating sources.
b. The first step is deciding the type of shelter required. No matter which
shelter is selected, the building or improvising process should be planned and
orderly, following proven procedures and techniques. The second step is to
select, collect, and prepare all materials needed before the actual
construction; this includes framework, covering, bedding, or insulation, and
implements used to secure the shelter ("dead-men," lines, stakes,
(1) For shelters that use a wooden framework, the poles or wood selected
should have all the rough edges and stubs removed. Not only will this reduce
the chances of the parachute fabric being ripped, but it will eliminate the
chances of injury to survivors.
(2) On the outer side of a tree selected as natural shelter, some or all of
the branches may be left in place as they will make a good support structure
for the rest of the shelter parts.
(3) In addition to the parachute, there are many other materials which can
be used as framework coverings. Some of the following are both framework and
covering all in one:
(a) Bark peeled off dead trees.
(b) Boughs cut off trees.
(c) Bamboo, palm, grasses, and other vegetation cut or woven into desired
(4) If parachute material is to be used alone or in combination with
natural materials, it must be changed slightly. Survivors should remove all of
the lines from the parachute and then cut it to size. This will eliminate
bunching and wrinkling and reduce leakage.
c. The third step in the process of shelter construction is site preparation.
This includes brushing away rocks and twigs from the sleeping area and cutting
back overhanging vegetation.
d. The fourth step is to actually construct the shelter, beginning with the
framework. The framework is very important. It must be strong enough to support
the weight of the covering and precipitation buildup of snow. It must also be
sturdy enough to resist strong wind gusts.
(1) Construct the framework in one of two ways. For natural shelters,
branches may be securely placed against trees or other natural objects. For
parachute shelters, poles may be lashed to trees or to other poles. The
support poles or branches can then be layed and (or) attached depending on
(2) The pitch of the shelter is determined by the framework. A 60-degree
pitch is optimum for shedding precipitation and providing shelter room.
(3) The size of the shelter is controlled by the framework. The shelter
should be large enough for survivors to sit up, with adequate room to lie down
and to store all personal equipment.
(4) After the basic framework has been completed, survivors can apply and
secure the framework covering. The care and techniques used to apply the
covering will determine the effectiveness of the shelter in shedding
(5) When using parachute material on shelters, survivors should remove all
suspension line from the material. (Excess line can be used for lashing,
sewing, etc.) Next, stretch the center seam tight; then work from the back of
the shelter to the front, alternating sides and securing the material to
stakes or framework by using buttons and lines. When stretching the material
tight, survivors should pull the material 90 degrees to the wrinkles. If
material is not stretched tight, any moisture will pool in the wrinkles and
leak into the shelter.
(6) If natural materials are to be used for the covering, the shingle
method should be used. Starting at the bottom and working toward the top of
the shelter, the bottom of each piece should overlap the top of the preceding
piece. This will allow water to drain off. The material should be placed on
the shelter in sufficient quantity so that survivors in the shelter cannot see
15-7. Maintenance and
Improvements. Once a shelter is constructed, it must be maintained.
Additional modifications may make the shelter more effective and comfortable.
Indian lacing (lacing the front of the shelter to the bipod) will tighten the
shelter. A door may help block the wind and keep insects out. Other
modifications may include a fire reflector, porch or work area, or another whole
addition such as an opposing lean-to.
15-8. Construction of
a. A-Frame. The following is one way to build an A-frame shelter in a warm
temperate environment using parachute material for the covering. There are as
many variations of this shelter as there are builders. The procedures here will,
if followed carefully, result in the completion of a safe shelter that will meet
survivors' needs. For an example of this and other A-frame shelters, see Figure
Figure 15-3. A-Frame
(1) Materials Needed:
(a) One 12 to 18 foot long sturdy ridge pole with all projections cleaned
(b) Two bipod poles, approximately 7 feet long.
(c) Parachute material, normally 5 or 6 gores.
(d) Suspension lines.
(e) "Buttons," small objects placed behind gathers of material
to provide a secure way of affixing suspension line to the parachute
(f) Approximately 14 stakes, approximately 10 inches long.
(2) Assembling the Framework:
(a) Lash (See chapter 17 - Equipment.) the two bipod poles together at
(b) Place the ridge pole, with the large end on the ground, into the
bipod formed by the poles and secure with a square lash.
(c) The bipod structure should be 90 degrees to the ridge pole and the
bipod poles should be spread out to an approximate equilateral triangle of a
60-degree pitch. A piece of line can be used to measure this.
(3) Application of Fabric:
(a) Tie off about 2 feet of the apex in a knot and tuck this under the
butt end of the ridge pole. Use half hitches and clove hitches to secure the
material to the base of the pole.
(b) Place the center radial seam of the parachute piece (or the center of
the fabric) on the ridge pole. After pulling the material taut, use half
hitches and clove hitches to secure the fabric to the front of the ridge
(c) Scribe or draw a line on the ground from the butt of the ridge pole
to each of bipod poles. Stake the fabric down, starting at the rear of the
shelter and alternately staking from side to side to the shelter front. Use
a sufficient number of stakes to ensure the parachute material is
(d) Stakes should be slanted or inclined away from the direction of pull.
When tying off with a clove hitch, the line should pass in front of the
stake first and then pass under itself to allow the button and line to be
pulled 90 degrees to the wrinkle.
(e) Indian lacing is the sewing or lacing of the lower lateral band with
inner core or line which is secured to the bipod poles. This will remove the
remaining wrinkles and further tighten the material.
(f) A rain fly, bed, and other refinements can now be added.
(1) Materials Needed:
(a) A sturdy, smooth ridge pole (longer than the builder's body) long
enough to span the distance between two sturdy trees.
(b) Support poles, 10 feet long.
(c) Stakes, suspension lines, and buttons.
(d) Parachute material (minimum of four gores).
(2) Assembling the Framework:
(a) Lash the ridge pole (between two suitable trees) about chest or
(b) Lay the roof support poles on the ridge pole so the roof support
poles and the ground are at approximately a 60-degree angle. Lash the roof
support poles to the ridge pole.
(3) Application of Fabric:
(a) Place the middle seam of the fabric on the middle support pole with
lower lateral band along the ridge pole.
(b) Tie-off the middle and both sides of the lower lateral band
approximately 8 to 10 inches from the ridge pole.
(c) Stake the middle of the rear of the shelter first, then alternate
from side to side.
(d) The stakes that go up the sides to the front should point to the
front of the shelter.
(e) Pull the lower lateral band closer to the ridge pole by Indian
(f) Add bed and other refinements (reflector fire, bed logs, rain fly,
etc.). See Figure 15-4 for
c. Paratepee, O-Pole. The paratepee is an excellent shelter for protection
from wind, rain, cold, and insects. Cooking, eating, sleeping, resting,
signaling, and washing can all be done without going outdoors. The paratepee,
whether 9-pole, 1-pole, or no-pole, is the only improvised shelter that provides
adequate ventilation to build an inside fire. With a small fire inside, the
shelter also serves as a signal at night.
(1) Materials Needed:
(a) Suspension line.
(b) Parachute material, normally 14 gores are suitable.
- 1. Spread out the 14-gore section of parachute and cut off all lines
at the lower lateral band, leaving about 18 inches of line attached. All
other suspension lines should be stripped from the parachute.
-2. Sew two smoke flaps, made from two large panels of parachute
material, at the apex of the 14-gore section on the outside seams. Attach
suspension line with a bowline in the end to each smoke flap. The ends of
the smoke flap poles will be inserted in these (see Figure
(d) Although any number of poles may be used, 11 poles, smoothed off,
each about 20 feet long, will normally provide adequate support.
(2) Assembling the Framework. (Assume 11 poles are used. Adjust
instructions if different numbers are used.)
(a) Lay three poles on the ground with the butts even. Stretch the canopy
along the poles. The lower lateral band should be 4 to 6 inches from the
bottoms of the poles before the stretching takes place. Mark one of the
poles at the apex point.
(b) Lash the three poles together, 5 to 10 inches above the marked area.
(A shear lash is effective for this purpose.) These poles will form the
tripod (Figure 15-5).
(c) Scribe a circle approximately 12 feet in diameter in the shelter area
and set the tripod so the butts of the poles are evenly spaced on the
circle. Five of the remaining eight poles should be placed so the butts are
evenly spaced around the 12-foot circle and the tops are laid in the apex of
the tripod to form the smallest apex possible (Figure
(3) Application of Fabric:
(a) Stretch the parachute material along the tie pole. Using the
suspension line attached to the middle radial seam, tie the lower lateral
band to the tie pole 6 inches from the butt end. Stretch the parachute
material along the middle radial seam and tie it to the tie pole using the
suspension line at the apex. Lay the tie pole onto the shelter frame with
the butt along the 12-foot circle and the top in the apex formed by the
other poles. The tie pole should be placed directly opposite the proposed
(b) Move the canopy material (both sides of it) from the tie pole around
the framework and tie the lower lateral band together and stake it at the
door. The front can now be sewn or pegged closed, leaving 3 to 4 feet for a
door. (A sewing "ladder" can be made by lashing steps up the front
of the tepee (Figure 15-5).
Figure 15-5. 9-Pole
(c) Enter the shelter and move the butts of the poles outward to form a
more perfect circle and until the fabric is relatively tight and smooth.
(d) Tighten the fabric and remove remaining wrinkles. Start staking
directly opposite the door, and alternate from side to side, pulling the
material down and to the front of the shelter. Use clove hitches or similar
knots to secure material to the stakes.
(e) Insert the final two poles into the loops on the smoke flaps. The
paratepee is now finished (Figure 15-5).
(f) One improvement which could be made to the paratepee is the
installation of a liner. This will allow a draft for a fire without making
the occupants cold, since there may be a slight gap between the lower
lateral band and the ground. A liner can be affixed to the inside of the
paratepee by taking the remaining 14-gore piece of material and firmly
staking the lower lateral band directly to the ground all the way around,
leaving room for the door. The area where the liner and door meet may be
sewn up. The rest of the material is brought up the inside walls and affixed
to the poles with buttons (Figure 15-5).
d. Paratepee, 1 -Pole:
(1) Materials Needed:
(a) Normally use a 14-gore section of canopy, strip the shroud lines
leaving 16- to 18-inch lengths at the lower lateral band.
(c) Inner core and needle.
(2) Construction of the 1 -Pole Paratepee:
(a) Select a shelter site and scribe a circle about 14 feet in diameter
on the ground.
(b) The parachute material is staked to the ground using the lines
attached at the lower lateral band. After deciding where the shelter door
will be located, stake the first line (from the lower band) down securely.
Proceed around the scribed line and stake down all the lines from the
lateral band, making sure the parachute material is stretched taut before
the line is staked down.
(c) Once all the lines are staked down, loosely attach the center pole,
and, through trial and error, determine the point at which the parachute
material will be pulled tight once the center pole is placed upright -
securely attach the material at this point.
(d) Using a suspension line (or innercore), sew the end gores together
leaving 3 or 4 feet for a door (Figure
Figure 15-6. 1-Pole
e. Paratepee, No-Pole. For this shelter, the 14 gores of material are
prepared the same way. A line is attached to the apex and thrown over a tree
limb, etc., and tied off. The lower lateral band is then staked down starting
opposite the door around a 12- to 14-foot circle. (See Figure
15-7 for paratepee example.)
Figure 15-7. No-Pole
f. Sod Shelter. A framework covered with sod provides a shelter which is warm
in cold weather and one that is easily made waterproof and insect-proof in the
summer. The framework for a sod shelter must be strong, and it can be made of
driftwood, poles, willow, etc. (Some natives use whale bones.) Sod, with a heavy
growth of grass or weeds, should be used since the roots tend to hold the soil
together. Cutting about 2 inches of soil along with the grass is sufficient. The
size of the blocks are determined by the strength of the individual. A sod house
is strong and fireproof.
15-9. Shelter for Tropical
Areas. Basic considerations for shelter in tropical areas are as
follows: a. In tropical areas, especially moist tropical areas, the major
environmental factors influencing both site selection and shelter types are:
(1) Moisture and dampness.
(3) Wet ground.
(5) Mud-slide areas.
(6) Dead standing trees and limbs.
b. Survivors should establish a campsite on a knoll or high spot in an open
area well back from any swamps or marshy areas. The ground in these areas is
drier, and there may be a breeze which will result in fewer insects.
c. Underbrush and dead vegetation should be cleared from the shelter site.
Crawling insects will not be able to approach survivors as easily due to lack of
d. A thick bamboo clump or matted canopy of vines for cover reflects the
smoke from the campfire and discourages insects. This cover will also keep the
extremely heavy early morning dew off the bedding.
e. The easiest improvised shelter is made by draping a parachute, tarpaulin,
or poncho over a rope or vine stretched between two trees. One end of the canopy
should be kept higher than the other; insects are discouraged by few openings in
shelters and smudge fires. A hammock made from parachute material will keep the
survivor off the ground and discourage ants, spiders, leeches, scorpions, and
f. In the wet jungle, survivors need shelter from dampness. If they stay with
the aircraft, it should be used for shelter. They should try to make it
mosquito-proof by covering openings with netting or parachute cloth.
g. A good rain shelter can be made by constructing an A-type framework and
shingling it with a good thickness of palm or other broad leaf plants, pieces of
bark, and mats of grass (Figure
Banana Leaf A-Frame.
h. Nights are cold in some mountainous tropical areas. Survivors should try
to stay out of the wind and build a fire. Reflecting the heat off a rock pile or
other barrier is a good idea. Some natural materials which can be used in the
shelters are green wood (dead wood may be too rotten), bamboo, and palm leaves.
Vines can be used in place of suspension line for thatching roofs or floors,
etc. Banana plant sections can be separated from the banana plant and fashioned
to provide a mattress effect.
Specific Shelters for Tropical Environments:
a. Raised Platform Shelter (Figure
15-9). This shelter has many variations. One example is four trees or
vertical poles in a rectangular pattern which is a little longer and a little
wider than the survivor, keeping in mind the survivor will also need protection
for equipment. Two long, sturdy poles are then square lashed between the trees
or vertical poles, one on each side of the intended shelter. Cross pieces can
then be secured across the two horizontal poles at 6- to 12-inch intervals. This
forms the platform on which a natural mattress may be constructed. Parachute
material can be used as an insect net and a roof can be built over the structure
using A-frame building techniques. The roof should be waterproofed with
thatching laid bottom to top in a thick shingle fashion. See Figure
15-9 for examples of this and other platform shelters. These shelters can
also be built using three trees in a triangular pattern. At the foot of the
shelter, two poles are joined to one tree.
Raised Platform Shelter.
b. Variation of Platform Shelter. A variation of the platform-type shelter is
the paraplatform. A quick and comfortable bed is made by simply wrapping
material around the two "frame" poles. Another method is to roll poles
in the material in the same manner as for an improvised stretcher (Figure
15-10. Raised Paraplatform Shelter.
c. Hammocks. Various parahammocks can also be made. They are more involved
than a simple parachute wrapped framework and not quite as comfortable (Figure